One of the main problems faced by the control of tropical-disease-transmitter vectors is the indiscriminate use of chemical insecticides, which have caused the appearance and propagation of resistance (World Health Organization, 1992). For two decades, 54 species of Anopheles mosquito have been reported as resistant to DDT, 28 to organ-phosphoric and 19 to carbamates and piretroids. This number is presently larger.
The irrational and excessive use of chemicals, their high toxicity and a lengthy permanence in the environment affects ecosystems and the human life. These are the reasons why, alternative methods have been searched in recent years, such as the biological combat.
Among the biological methods, the use of sporogenic bacteria has been recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO) to contribute to the non affectation of environment, as they are innocuous for men and fauna, easy to apply, low cost and highly effective against larva of culicidus and simulidus, casual agents’ vectors of diseases such as malaria, dengue and onco-cercosis, among others.
Taking researches carried out as precedent, LABIOFAM Business Group develops two bio-larvicides which contain bacteria Bacillus sphaericus 2362 strain in Griselesf® and Bacillus thuringiensis, israelensis variety, in Bactivec®. Both products work on Anopheles, Culex, Mansonia and Psorophora mosquito larva, and some species of aedes and simulidus, without affecting human health or beneficial organisms such as fishes and other hydrobionts.
Grisel Montero Lago, PhD in Biologic Sciences, who works as specialist at LABIOFAM’s Branch of Vector Biologic Control in the Cuban capital, developed the technology to produce these bio-larvicides as part of a project sponsored by the WHO.
Griselesf® stays in the environment for a period of 3 to 6 months, depending on the bio-ecological characteristics of breeders, while the bio-larvicide responds to Bactivec® trademark, made up of spores and endotoxic crystals, it counts on a formulation characterized by having quick action, between 24 and 48 hours after applied. That behavior makes it valuable for emergency situations.
“The operational use of these bio-larvicides, with probed effectiveness in antivectorial fight— the Doctor refers— has allowed them to be registered in several countries on Asia, Africa and Latin America.”